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A number of alternative logical structures for essays have been visualized as diagrams, making them easy to implement or adapt in the construction of an argument. In countries like the United States and the United Kingdom , essays have become a major part of a formal education in the form of free response questions. Secondary students in these countries are taught structured essay formats to improve their writing skills, and essays are often used by universities in these countries in selecting applicants see admissions essay. In both secondary and tertiary education, essays are used to judge the mastery and comprehension of the material.
Students are asked to explain, comment on, or assess a topic of study in the form of an essay. In some courses, university students must complete one or more essays over several weeks or months. In addition, in fields such as the humanities and social sciences, [ citation needed ] mid-term and end of term examinations often require students to write a short essay in two or three hours. In these countries, so-called academic essays also called papers , are usually more formal than literary ones. Longer academic essays often with a word limit of between 2, and 5, words [ citation needed ] are often more discursive.
They sometimes begin with a short summary analysis of what has previously been written on a topic, which is often called a literature review. Longer essays may also contain an introductory page that defines words and phrases of the essay's topic. Most academic institutions require that all substantial facts, quotations, and other supporting material in an essay be referenced in a bibliography or works cited page at the end of the text.
This scholarly convention helps others whether teachers or fellow scholars to understand the basis of facts and quotations the author uses to support the essay's argument and helps readers evaluate to what extent the argument is supported by evidence, and to evaluate the quality of that evidence. The academic essay tests the student's ability to present their thoughts in an organized way and is designed to test their intellectual capabilities. One of the challenges facing universities is that in some cases, students may submit essays purchased from an essay mill or "paper mill" as their own work.
An "essay mill" is a ghostwriting service that sells pre-written essays to university and college students.
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Since plagiarism is a form of academic dishonesty or academic fraud , universities and colleges may investigate papers they suspect are from an essay mill by using plagiarism detection software, which compares essays against a database of known mill essays and by orally testing students on the contents of their papers. Essays often appear in magazines, especially magazines with an intellectual bent, such as The Atlantic and Harpers. Magazine and newspaper essays use many of the essay types described in the section on forms and styles e.
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Some newspapers also print essays in the op-ed section. Employment essays detailing experience in a certain occupational field are required when applying for some jobs, especially government jobs in the United States. Essays known as Knowledge Skills and Executive Core Qualifications are required when applying to certain US federal government positions. A KSA, or "Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities," is a series of narrative statements that are required when applying to Federal government job openings in the United States.
KSAs are used along with resumes to determine who the best applicants are when several candidates qualify for a job. The knowledge, skills, and abilities necessary for the successful performance of a position are contained on each job vacancy announcement. KSAs are brief and focused essays about one's career and educational background that presumably qualify one to perform the duties of the position being applied for. Like the KSAs, ECQs are used along with resumes to determine who the best applicants are when several candidates qualify for a job.
The Office of Personnel Management has established five executive core qualifications that all applicants seeking to enter the Senior Executive Service must demonstrate. A film essay or "cinematic essay" consists of the evolution of a theme or an idea rather than a plot per se, or the film literally being a cinematic accompaniment to a narrator reading an essay. The cinematic essay often blends documentary , fiction , and experimental film making using tones and editing styles.
Jean-Luc Godard describes his recent work as "film-essays". Brecht was a playwright who experimented with film and incorporated film projections into some of his plays. These are often published online on video hosting services. David Winks Gray's article "The essay film in action" states that the "essay film became an identifiable form of filmmaking in the s and '60s". He states that since that time, essay films have tended to be "on the margins" of the filmmaking the world. Essay films have a "peculiar searching, questioning tone Gray notes that just like written essays, essay films "tend to marry the personal voice of a guiding narrator often the director with a wide swath of other voices".
In the realm of music , composer Samuel Barber wrote a set of "Essays for Orchestra," relying on the form and content of the music to guide the listener's ear, rather than any extra-musical plot or story. A photographic essay strives to cover a topic with a linked series of photographs.
Photo essays range from purely photographic works to photographs with captions or small notes to full-text essays with a few or many accompanying photographs. Photo essays can be sequential in nature, intended to be viewed in a particular order — or they may consist of non-ordered photographs viewed all at once or in an order that the viewer chooses. All photo essays are collections of photographs, but not all collections of photographs are photo essays. Photo essays often address a certain issue or attempt to capture the character of places and events.
In the visual arts , an essay is a preliminary drawing or sketch that forms a basis for a final painting or sculpture, made as a test of the work's composition this meaning of the term, like several of those following, comes from the word essay' s meaning of "attempt" or "trial". From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Essay - Wikipedia
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For other uses, see Essay disambiguation. For a description of essays as used by Wikipedia editors, see Wikipedia: For other uses, see Essai disambiguation. The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this article , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new article , as appropriate. January Learn how and when to remove this template message. Geoffrey Venning towards initiating this project. His foresight, patience and wisdom are appreciated.
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Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This is an open access article under the CC BY license http: This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Background There is a considerable body of pre-clinical, epidemiological and randomised data to support the hypothesis that aspirin has the potential to be an effective adjuvant cancer therapy. Methods Add-Aspirin is a phase III, multi-centre, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomised trial with four parallel cohorts.
Results The primary outcome measures are invasive disease-free survival for the breast cohort, disease-free survival for the colorectal cohort, overall survival for the gastro-oesophageal cohort, and biochemical recurrence-free survival for the prostate cohort, with a co-primary outcome of overall survival across all cohorts. Conclusions The Add-Aspirin trial investigates whether regular aspirin use after standard therapy prevents recurrence and prolongs survival in participants with four non-metastatic common solid tumours.
Aspirin, Breast cancer, Colorectal cancer, Gastro-oesophageal cancer, Prostate cancer, Randomised controlled trial. Background and introduction 1. Rationale The Add-Aspirin trial includes participants with breast, colorectal, gastro-oesophageal and prostate tumours which, together, accounts for approximately one third of all cancer cases and cancer deaths .
Supporting evidence There have been well over case-control and cohort studies investigating the use of aspirin and cancer risk . Aims The Add-Aspirin trial aims to assess whether regular aspirin use after standard potentially curative primary therapy can prevent recurrence and prolong survival in individuals with four common early stage solid tumours. Open in a separate window. End of run-in period assessment At the end of the run-in period, the participant's tolerance of aspirin and adherence to daily treatment will be assessed.
Randomisation Following assessment at the end of the run-in period, eligible participants in the UK are randomised by phone and, in India, via the trial website. Follow-up Patients are followed up at three-monthly intervals initially and then six-monthly. Sub-studies The size and diversity of the Add-Aspirin cohort provides opportunity to address other secondary research questions and evaluate novel methodology. Translational objectives The Add-Aspirin trial incorporates a sample repository where a baseline blood sample and tumour sample are stored for future translational projects.
Table 1 Outcome measures. Sample size prostate cohort The radical prostatectomy and radical radiotherapy groups are powered to assess effects separately.
Challenges and methodological solutions There are a number of practical and operational challenges presented by a large adjuvant trial of a generic and repurposed intervention. Overarching protocol A platform trial design was chosen because there is evidence that aspirin is potentially effective in multiple tumours.
Antecedent aspirin use A proportion of individuals who are otherwise eligible for the trial will already be taking aspirin regularly. Over the counter aspirin Unlike most other cancer trials, the intervention in the Add-Aspirin can be purchased without a prescription.
Timing of entry considerations The timing of trial registration has been aligned across all four cohorts to make the treatment of each as similar as possible, however a number of adjustments have been necessary to account for the variety of treatment modalities and pathways, and differences in patient characteristics between cohorts.
Run-in period The run-in period was implemented after funders' concern about the risk of poor adherence. Drug supply Aspirin is a generic drug, Bayer AG donated all doses of the blinded active intervention and matched placebo, but not the packaging, labelling, blinding or distribution, which therefore represented a major operational and funding challenge. Co-enrolment Since aspirin is intended to be given following or alongside standard primary therapy, rather than replacing any element of current treatment, it will be appropriate to include participants who have already taken part in trials of primary treatments wherever possible.
Recruitment in India Since aspirin is easily available worldwide, demonstrating its implementation in different resource settings will increase the global impact of the results.
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Conclusions Aspirin is a low-cost, generic drug that is easily available worldwide. Figures describing cohort specific timing of entry criteria. Aspirin and cancer risk: Association between aspirin use and mortality in breast cancer patients: Aspirin intake and survival after breast cancer. Aspirin use and survival after the diagnosis of breast cancer: Aspirin use and survival after diagnosis of colorectal cancer. Use of aspirin postdiagnosis improves survival for colon cancer patients. Use of aspirin post-diagnosis in a cohort of patients with colorectal cancer and its association with all-cause and colorectal cancer specific mortality.
Aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use and colorectal cancer survival: Impact of aspirin as secondary prevention in an unselected cohort of 25, patients with colorectal cancer: A preliminary study on the postoperative survival of patients given aspirin after resection for squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus or adenocarcinoma of the cardia. The effect of aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use after diagnosis on survival of oesophageal cancer patients.
Aspirin and statin nonuse associated with early biochemical failure after prostate radiation therapy. Aspirin use and the risk of prostate cancer mortality in men treated with prostatectomy or radiotherapy. Daily aspirin use and prostate cancer-specific mortality in a large cohort of men with nonmetastatic prostate cancer. Long-term effect of aspirin on colorectal cancer incidence and mortality: Effect of daily aspirin on long-term risk of death due to cancer: Short-term effects of daily aspirin on cancer incidence, mortality, and non-vascular death: Effect of daily aspirin on risk of cancer metastasis: Alternate-day, low-dose aspirin and cancer risk: Aspirin in the treatment of cancer: Long-term effect of aspirin on cancer risk in carriers of hereditary colorectal cancer: Aspirin in the primary and secondary prevention of vascular disease: Bleeding risks with aspirin use for primary prevention in adults: Preventive Services Task Force.
Estimates of benefits and harms of prophylactic use of aspirin in the general population. The vulnerable elders survey VES Proposal for standardized definitions for efficacy end points in adjuvant breast cancer trials: Sequential docetaxel as adjuvant chemotherapy for early breast cancer TACT: Adjuvant chemotherapy with sequential or concurrent anthracycline and docetaxel: Breast International Group 02 98 randomized trial.
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